Introduction to Mineral Exploration Second Edition Edited by Charles J. Moon, Michael K.G. Whateley & Anthony M. Evans With contributions from William L. Introduction to mineral exploration.–2nd ed. / edited by Charles J. Moon, Michael K.G. Whateley & Anthony M. Evans; with contributions from William L. Barrett. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Introduction to Mineral Exploration (2nd Edition) | An introduction to mineral exploration with a number of interesting case.
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Introduction to mineral exploration pdf. Introduction to Mineral Exploration Anthony M. Evans Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Release Date: ISBN. To inculcate knowledge of mineral exploration to the students which is the mainstay of To introduce methods of projecting profitability in mining ventures and. Book Name: Introduction to Mineral Exploration,Second Edition - Edited by: Charles J. Moon, Michael K.G. Whateley & Anthony M. Evans.
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This requirement is well fulfilled, the book including detailed information concerning sampling, t,reatment, of samples, and suitabi1it. The appendix is importSant and in Inany cases may help in int. The list of references ib: extensive and oert.
This is true for the one reviewed. A criticism thus may be made that the anomalies relat,ed to unmineralized areas should have had more attention than that already allocated to them; for this is t,he point on which many interpretations have failed. For instance the so-called sulphide- black -schists often cause much higher geochemical anomalies than do the ores themselves related to such rocks; finely dispersed sulphides may cause stronger anomalies than compact ores of limit,ed size of the outcrop, etc.
This is also the reason why in glaciated areas, for instance, the geochemical methods are often used to facilitate the interpretation of geophysical anomalies.
As pointed out on p. Concerning the future of geochemistry in mineral exploration the authors write p. So doubt, it will perfectly fIllfill the purpose intended by the authors, 1 to the student as an introductory textbook, 2 to research workers in allied fields, 3 to the nonspecialist practising geologists, 4 to specialists in applied geochemistry.
In longwall mining, operations are concentrated along face from meters to meters wide.
The height of extraction is usually the thickness of the coal seam. The length of the longwall block is about 3, meters to 5, meters. In a 3 meter thick coal seam the amount of coal in place in a block is six to seven million tons.
The basic equipment is a shearer a cutting machine mounted on a steel conveyor that moves it along the face Figure The conveyor discharges the coal onto a conveyor belt for transport out of the mine. The longwall face crew, the shearer, and the face conveyor are under a continuous canopy of steel created by supports called shields. The shields, face conveyor, and shearer are connected to each other and move in a programmed sequence so that the longwall face is always supported as the shearer continuously cuts the coal in slices about 1 meter thick.
The shearer is much like a cheese slicer running back and forth across a block of cheese. Technology Needs In simple terms mining involves breaking in-situ materials and hauling the broken materials out of the mine, while ensuring the health and safety of miners and the economic viability of the operation.
Since the early s, a relentless search has been under way for new and innovative mining technologies that can improve health, safety, and productivity. In recent decades another driver has been a growing awareness of the adverse environmental and ecological impacts of mining. Markers along the trail of mining extraction technology include the invention of the safety lamp, and safe use of dynamite for fragmentation, the safe use of electricity, the development of continuous miners for cutting coal, the invention of rock bolts for ground support, open-pit mining Page 29 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"3 Technologies in Exploration, Mining, and Processing.
At the turn of the twenty-first century, even as the U. For example, the inability to ascertain the conditions ahead in the mining face impedes rapid advance and creates health and safety hazards.
As mining progresses to greater depths the increase in rock stress requires innovative designs for ensuring the short-term and long-term stability of the mine structure. Truly continuous mining will require innovative fragmentation and material-handling systems. In addition, sensing, analyzing, and communicating data and information will become increasingly important.
Mining environments also present unique challenges to the design and operation of equipment.
Composed of a large number of complex components, mining systems must be extremely reliable. Therefore, innovative maintenance strategies, supported by modern monitoring technologies, will be necessary for increasing the productive operational time of equipment and the mining system as a whole. Look-Ahead Technologies Unexpected geological conditions during the mining process can threaten worker safety and may decrease productivity.
Geological problems encountered in mining can include local thinning or thickening of the deposit, the loss of the deposit itself, unexpected dikes and faults, and intersections of gas and water reservoirs. Even with detailed advanced exploration at closely spaced intervals, mining operations have been affected by many problems, such as gas outbursts, water inundations, dangerous strata conditions, and severe operational problems, that can result in injuries to personnel, as well as major losses of equipment and decreases in production.
Advances in in-ground geophysics could lead to the development of new technologies for predicting geological conditions in advance of the mining face defined here as look-ahead technology. Three major technology areas are involved in systems that can interrogate the rock mass ahead of a working face: sensor systems, data processing, and visualization. All three areas should be pursued in parallel to effect progress in the development of a usable system.
Research on the development of specific sensors and sensor systems has focused on seismic methods. In underground mining the mining machine if mining is continuous can be used as a sound source, and receivers can be placed in arrays just behind the working face.
For drilling and blasting operations, either on the surface or underground, blast pulses can be used to interrogate rock adjacent to the rock being moved. However, numerous difficulties have been encountered, even with this relatively straightforward approach. Current seismic systems are not designed to receive and process multiple signals or continuous-wave sources, such as those from the mining machine.
In another study an NRC panel concluded that controlled blasting methods could generate strong enough signals for analysis and suitable for geotechnical investigations NRC, b.
Other sensing methods that could be explored include electromagnetics and ground-penetrating radar. Combinations of sensing methods should also be explored to maximize the overlaying of multiple data sets. The second major area that requires additional research is data processing methods for interpreting sensor data. The mining industry has a critical need for processing algorithms that can take advantage of current parallel-processing technologies.
Currently, the processing of seismic data can take many hours or days. Real-time turnaround in minutes in processing will be necessary for the data to be useful for continuous mining. The third area of need is data display and visualization, which are closely related to the processing and interpretation of data. The data cannot be quickly assessed unless they are in a form that can be readily reviewed.
geological methods in mineral exploration and mining pdf
The need for visualizing data, especially in three dimensions, is not unique to the mining industry. In fact, it is being addressed by many technical communities, especially in numerical analysis and simulation. Ongoing work could be leveraged and extended to meet the needs of the mining industry. With look-ahead technology unexpected features and events could be detected and avoided or additional engineering measures put in place to prevent injuries and damage to equipment.
The economic benefits of anticipating the narrowing or widening of the mined strata or other changes in the geologic nature of the orebody would also be substantial.
Cutting and Fragmentation Mechanized cutting of rock for underground construction and mining has long been a focus area of technology development NRC, a. For coal and soft rock, high-production cutting tools and machines have been available for some time and continue to be improved, especially in cutter designs that minimize dust and optimize fragment size for downstream moving and processing.
Hardrock presents much more difficult problems. Tunnel-boring machines can cut hardrock at reasonable rates, but the cutters are expensive and wear out rapidly, and the machines require very high thust and specific energy the quantity of energy required to excavate a unit of volume.
In addition, tunnel-boring machines are not mobile enough to follow sharply changing or dipping ore bodies. Blasting is also used to move large amounts of overburden blast casting in some surface mining operations.
Improved blasting methods for more precise rock movement and better control of the fragment sizes would reduce the cost of overbreak removal, as well as the cost of downstream processing. Recommended areas for research and development in cutting and fragmentation are the development of hardrock cutting methods and tools and improved blast designs. Research on the design of more mobile, rapid, and reliable hardrock excavation would benefit both the mining and underground construction industries.
Early focus of this research should be on a better understanding of fracture mechanisms in rock so that better cutters can be designed NRC, b. In addition, preconditioning the rock with water jets, thermal impulses, explosive impulses, or other techniques are promising technologies for weakening rock, which would make subsequent mechanical cutting easier. Novel combinations of preconditioning and cutting should also be investigated.
Numerous ideas for the rapid excavation of hard rock were explored in the early s, motivated by the defense community. These concepts should be re-examined in light of technological improvements in the last 20 years that could make some of the concepts more feasible Conroy et al.
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Improvements in blast design e. New methods of explosive tailoring and timing would also have significant benefits. Research into novel applications of blasting technology for the preparation of in-situ rubble beds for processing would help overcome some of the major barriers to the development of large-scale, in-situ processing methods. New developments in micro-explosives that could be pumped into thin fractures and detonated should be explored for their applications to in-situ fracturing and increasing permeability for processing.
These methods would also have applications for coal gasification and in-situ leaching.
The development of better and faster rock-cutting and fragmentation methods, especially for applications to hard rock and in-situ mining, would result in dramatic improvements in productivity and would have some ancillary health and environmental risks and benefits. Mechanized, continuous mining operations are recognized as inherently safer than conventional drill-and-blast mining because it requires fewer unit operations, enables faster installation of ground support, and exposes fewer personnel to hazards.
Continuous mining methods for underground hard-rock mining would also raise the level of productivity considerably. The environmental risks associated with in-situ mine-bed preparation by injection of explosives or other means of creating permeability will have to be evaluated.
This evaluation should include the hazardous effects of unexploded materials or poisonous by-products in the case of chemical generation of permeability. Current thinking is that these risks would not be high relative to the risks of the processing operations used in in-situ mineral extraction e. Ground Control The planning and design of virtually all elements of a mining system—openings, roadways, pillars, supports, mining method, sequence of extraction, and equipment—are dictated by the geological and geotechnical characterization of the mine site.
The objective of ground control is to use site information and the principles of rock mechanics to engineer mine structures for designed purposes. Massive failures of pillars in underground mines, severe coal and rock bursts, open-pit slope failures, and roof and side falls all represent unexpected failures of the system to meet its design standard.In fact, it is being addressed by many technical communities, especially in numerical analysis and simulation. In underground mining the mining machine if mining is continuous can be used as a sound source, and receivers can be placed in arrays just behind the working face.
Geologic maps show the The objective of ground control is to use site information and the principles of rock mechanics to engineer mine structures for designed purposes. It so reflects my personal opinions about mineral exploration that I am probably too prejudicial to be a "fair" reviewer.
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