n the second millennium B.C., while the Elam nation was developing a civilization alongside Babylon, Indo-European invaders gave their name to the immense. Satrapi, Persepolis 1 English - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book Satrapi Marjane - The Complete Persepolis ( Knopf Doubleday. The Complete Persepolis Here, in one volume: Marjane Satrapi's best-selling, internationally acclaimed graphic memoir. Persepolis is the story of Satrapi's.

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Marjane Satrapi-The Complete Persepolis-Pantheon ().epub. Download Marjane Satrapi-The Complete Persepolis-Pantheon ().epub ( MB). We are West Linn STRONG. Parents both Current and New: Please take a moment to sign up The Complete Persepolis. The complete Persepolis. [Marjane Satrapi] -- Persepolis is the story of Marjane Satrapi's childhood and coming of age within a large and loving family in Tehran .

Kross, Karin L. Could a French-language "graphic novel" serve as a case study of sabk in Persianate literatures? Within a decade after the revolu- tion, the burgeoning lranian diaspora in Western Europe and North America was producing literature of ils own, qualitatively different from the works of lranian expats in the 1.

Jamilzada and S.

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Hidayat created some of their best-known ficlion abroad, they were wrifing primarily in Persian, and with an iranian audience in mind, The writers of the postrevolu- tionary iranian diaspora, on lhe other hand, ar"e settling in their new domiciles and achieving international recognition with works draw- ing on the Iranian experience, but written in the langr-rages of their adopted homelands.

As for snbk, since the term is closely ;lssociated with "eloquence" or balagha, i. And yet Muhammad Taqi Bahar, a pioneer of rnodern Persian stylistics sabkhrnasi clefines sablcin such a way that it could be applied even to a graphic novel. According to Bahar, satrk is "a specific mode of conception and expression ofthoughts rhrough verbal phrases, choice of words, and manner of explication. This article tests the applicabihty of the term "Persianate lileraLure" to diasporic works lhroLrgh a case siudy of Marjane Salrapi's Persepolis,which has errjoyed an enlhusiastic worldwide reception rivaled perhaps only by FiLzgerald's translation of Omar Khayyar"n's Ruba'iyyat in the mid-nineLeenth cenfury.

The article also examines the creative choices-the domain of sabk-which aliow lhe author to successfully negotiate cultural differences and to lranslate the Iranian experience into the cultural language of her French targel audience, while affirrning her Iranian rooLs.

Satrapi's Persepalis: Addressing respectively the events of the revolution of t, the Iran-lraq war, and the jssues Iranian imigrds atrd returnees face in the West and in Iran respectively , each of the four comir: Persepolis was lranslated jnto more Lhan twenLy larrguages and topped the best-seller charts acl'oss Europe and North America.

As a widely acclaimed "sequential narrative"i: A sr-rbslantial number of articles also exanrine its use in lhe classroom, mainly as a vehicle For women's studies and gender studies, the experience of exile, visuai literacy, and history.

Fersepolisthrough the Lens of Persian Histariogrophy 9l While elements of traditionai Persian art and some iconic images2z are referenced fleetingly in Persepolis, in my view it is Lhe histor- icai content of the novelthat invites a closer scrutiny of possible affinities of the book wilh Per: These wcrks, in turn, prcvided material for the early Persian histories in Arabic from the Islamic period, and fcr the Iranian epic lraditi,: The predilection for such "quasi-historical" narratives25 became a distinctive feature of Fersian historicai writing from the islamic per: As Charles Melville points oul, Persian chronicles fr: Until recently, eariy Arabic historical works were lauded as "n1ore seriilus, scholar: Thr-rs Fer: Preference for a continuoLrs narralive rather than annal i stic, yearr-b y -y e ar arrangement, and predom inance of the didactic objective over the chronological principle, "fHistorians] employ a chronological framework," she points out, "but the selectior and presenlation ofevenLs is dictated, first arrd foremosl by the lhematics, which means that some materlals are grouped together in relatir: Persepolis through the Lens af Persian Historiography 93 perpetrated by the protagonist , and permitted the inclusion of ficlional narratives, poelic admonishments, and lilerary embel- lishments that contributed to the narrative's tnoral intent.

Meisami argues thaL such materials are nol meant to be embellishments, but rather testimonials to the truth of the narrative. Premodern histor: Part 1: What could Satrapi know of events that unfolded beyond the confined world of a child? How accurate could a minor's recollec- tions be twenty years after the fact?

PersepoJfs's historical accur"acy has been questioned more Lhan once, aird Lhe author's responses are very rnuch in line with the priorities of premodern historians discussed above. Do you do fiction comics as well?

Not at all. Comics are realistic and it's what I know. The main parts of the book are things lhat have hap- pened" Bul in any storl,', unless you want to make a dcicumen- tary or if il's rTol a political book, you have tr: That was not the purpose.

Persepolis, tome 1

To make any type of story you have to make it work. In an interview wilh Michelle Goldberg, who raised lhat question, Satrapi responded that she always speaks olher: Frorn interviews with her and from unverifiable sources in the pcrpular media we glean a few more morsels of information" She studied decoralive arts in Slrasbourg in ; moved to Paris in , where she resides at presenl with her Swedish husband and met the critically acclaimed French cartoonist Christophe Blain;,joined I'gtelier des Vosges, and became an illustr: The rest we know frrsm Persepolis Lhr: Within that lime frame we learn from Marji's conversations with her parents that on her mother's side, she is a great-granddaughter of the last Qa-iar elnperor of Iran, overthror,vn througl, a military coup by lleza Khan, who would laler become Shah and rhe founder of the Pahlavi dynasty.

We are told that Marji's grandfathe r, a Qajar prince, became a communist during his studies in Europe. He later became prime minister to Reza Shah, the man who had deposed his father, and who appropriated the crown along with everything Marji's fam- ily owned.

From vague indications in the text we also know that Marji stud- ied at "a French non-religious school" that was ciosed by the author- ities in tgaO the Lycde franqais in Tehran, accordir: Finally, in , her parents sent her to Vienna because of her dangerous outspokenness arrd fre- quent conflicts wilh lhe Islamisl school auLhorities. Part 2, The Story of a Return corresponding to Chapter We see her next undergoing a period of teenage angst and growing pains mixed with earnest attempls to fit in with the Viennese youth subculLure.

Her life in exile is broughl to a close after a brush with homelessness, wl'iich cuhninaLes in a iife-threatening sickness. Upon recovery, Marji reluctantly dons the veil orrce again and-"afler four years living in Vienna"- refurns to postwar lran, presurnabiy in Retrofitting in Iranian society has challerrges of its own, and for a time Marji feels like an alien in her own native land. Yet she is accepted as a studenl in The College of Art; marries, then divorces her colleague Reza; and finally leaves Iran again after becoming con- vinced thal fbr a woman of her independent mindset, and an arlist ofher cast, the prospects under lheocralic rule are bleak.

The story of Ma4i, as suamarized above, can be corr: For example, Marji's grand- father, the communist-prince who served in the government of Reza Khan, has aL leasL one possible hisLorical protolype: The Qajar: As members of the radical Revolutionary Cornmittee Kum rt n-y i tnqilabi , the two brothers had pledged themselves to "the overthrow of des- poLisnr" and to "lhe rule of law andjustice. As a pupil aL Dar al-I'onun i"'fhe Polytechnic College," founded in , which marked the beginning of modern educa- lion ir.

He survived the lConstitutional] revolution to participate in lhe Democrat party of tgoq-rgr9, lo lead the Socialist par: Ardent constitutionalist;member of the first through fifth tvtadjles; member of the social democr: He was one of the pers,: Soleyman Mirza's trust in the dernocratic pr: At that moment he left his house afree man after almost fifteen years of seclusion.

FIe died shortly thereafter in In the ParliamenL w;ts asked lo vote cn lhe abolition of the Qajar dynasty, and to ccnfer on Reza Khan the title of shah for life tqza. According to Kalouzian, Sulayman Mirz5 was the oniy parlianrentarian who argr-ted in the House againsL lhe establishment of a new dynast3: But whiie SLllayman Mtrzawas spared the worst of Reza Shah's heavy-handedness, many of his colleagues in Parliament felt its fuil force.

There is broad agreement among Lhe sources lhaL lteza Shah suppressed method- ically all opponenls to iris investiture as a monarch, and even im- prisoned, executed, or ordered the clandestine murder of many who had previously supported him. Sulayman Mirza's Socialist lrarty i. According to Abrahamian, the oniy communist leaders who "escaped imprison- ment were those already in exile in Lhe Soviet Union""55 This was the case with Marji's uncie Anoosh in the book, a generation later.

Persepolis thror-rgh the Lens of Persion Historiagraphy 99 from real-life persor: Weren'[ we warned by Satrapi herself, in her interview with Newsarama cited earlier, that in Persepoh"s we will find lhe historical truth, bul also evidence of creative license?

Undoubtedly, Marii Loo is a lilerary persona based on the experiences of young Marjane, directed in her recoilections by the hindsight of a mature author with clear creative objectives and pedagogical goals. No wonder, then, lhat the key historical events ancl Li: For psychologicalveracity, the historical events to which Marji is not a witness are streamlined and simplified, divested of dates, most slrange-sounding narres, and cumbersome details.

In other words, Persepolis is indeed a veritable histo: Edification, Chronology, and Plot Line Structure Actually, "education by slealth" is a misnomer when applied lo Satrapi's pedagogical tactics, for in the introdr,rclion lcr the boc,k and in her numerous interviews, -she openly declar: Nor does she hide her ardent desire to set the record straight and to remind the Western reader of the great old Persian civilization, and-in sharing her personal experi- ences of Iran and the revolution-to radically reduce "fhe otherness" of lran and Iranians in the eyes of her audience.

The riidactic objective of Satrapi's book sets it firmly in Lhe continuur-n of the Persiarr hisforiographicaltradilion, and Lo a great extent guides her trealment of the hisforical materi: The book's wide use as a teaching tool in Western educalional insti- tutions bears witness to the effectiveness of the nanner or sabk in which these lessons are proffered.

Persepolis is a treasure trove ofreferences Lo hislorical evenls, embedded in a seemingJy urrpr: Of special inLeresL for educators are Lhe ref'erences "lo the history of all lraniansi'which are not only numerous and on the whole reliable with tlre understanding thal Fersepolis is nol meant Lo compete with the hislory books! Salrapi's brieI introducLion-merely fbur paragraphs long-is her first lesson in iranian history. Paragraph one addresses the advent of the Tndo-Europeans upon the Iranian plateau,lhe founding of the Persian empire by Cyr: The second paragraphmarks the turning points of Iranian hislory through the waves of conquest, which impinged on its cultural trajectory.

A fourth paragraph outlines the aulhor's objective in writing the book: This is why writing Persepolis was so importanl to me. Persepolis through the Lens af Persian Histrsriography sliould not be judged by the wrongdoings of a few extremists. I also don't wanl Lhose lranians who lost their lives in prisons defending freedom, who died in the war against Iraq, who suf- fered under various repressive regimes, or who were forced to leave their families and flee their homeland to be forgoLten.

Names and dates as given in the book, if they are not in parentheses single out imporlanl, historically significanl events and individuals: Origlns of the name lran: Ernpire of the Medes. Name change: Alexander the Great. Rise of Reza Shah in the twentieth century.

Alhed occupalion during Worid War'rwo. Ascent of Mohammad Reza Shah. Mosaddeq and the CIA coup tlrt-s: Islamic revolution af lwg The surnmary in the intr: The Role oflran in Sokur: Literature of the Early Twentieth Century: Her represenlalion of Lyrannical Persian rulers is derived from Sasanian bas-reliefs,ut while medieval miniaLures of the Moirgols' famed "Parthian shot" pravide a fitting icon for their bioody conquest of Lhirteenth-century Persia.

After the pictorial representation of "Persian history in a nut-shell," Satrapi focuses on Iran's recent past. Demonstrations for and againsi the veil 2.


Daily anti-Shah demonslrations tgzs. Army shoots at demonstrators Excurse: Reza Khan's caap February , and his rise to the 3. Continued unrest. The Shah changes cabinets and appeals Lo Lhe nafion, prorn- ising free eleclions and Lhe correclion of "past mislakes" November 5, ' Muharram pr: Beginning of exodus of middle-class int. Extrajudicial murder"s of leftist activists. Arresls, trials, and executiorrs of lefllst activisLs, includ- ing uncle Ani: Closing of lranian universities in by Islamist authorities Debates on women's righls and wometl's demonslrations against the adoption of lhe veil, attacks on wolren demon- strating without the veil fianr-rary , and a violent repres- sion of a womett's demonsLration against mandatory veiling ntarch rgTq Beginning of Iran-Traq war September 22, 68 President Bani Sadr orders reiease of Iranian pilots, jailed for participation in a failed coup after mutiny on an air force base, so that they can join the war effort September 6e Iraq bombs the refinery of Abadan and besieges the city september i 9s0.

A flood of hnore than a million refugees from the war zone produces a shortage of foodstuffs and raticningTo Regular bombardment of Tehran Internal wars-suppression and executi,: The exceptions to the chronologicalprinciple are of Lwo kinds: The four excurses, whlch provicle the revolulion wilh a hisforical context,T3 and the episocie on the introdr-rction of mandatory veil- ing,7a whjch rather anachronistically opens the book.

Its posiLionirrg at the beginning of Fersepolis shows Satrapi's keen understanding cf her prospective audience. Western readers are fascinated and re- peiled by lhe veil, the mosl recognizable, contenLious, and con'rpel- ling marker of the Iranian revolution. Prominently featured in the Western press since the lime of the revolution, the chadur in particu- lar is Lhe enveloping black shroud that sets off the Iratrian "o[hers": In Satrapi"s graphic novel, the veiling episode in the firsl chapler fulfilis two important functions: Although Satrapi conslructs a sound, mostly chronologically accurate "skeleton" of Lhe narrative, she keeps lhe dates ofthe evenLs concealed because Lhey are irrelevant for the intended messagel and because the narrator-a chjld-would not have kept track of them.

The flow cf events is inlerrupled at times by embedcled excurses and llashbacks within which the historicai information is also strictly chronologically arranged. By including these ref'erences to events that had taken place haifa century before the revolulion of , Salrapi replicates the tendency of the premodern persian histcrians to deviate from the annalistic principle of history writing whenever that suited their didacLic goals.

Documentary Evidence: The lconography of the Revolution Il was mentioned earlier that premodern historians often inserLed in their narratives "the raw materials of history lletters, oaths, poetry, snatches of conversalion], whether.

Orr Lhe textuai level, she often marks turning point. Persepollsthrough the Lens of Persir: Aiso, as in real life, her heroes and viliairrs cannot be immediately distinguished by their appeayance. The photographic aspect of Satrapi's drawings, however, goes wellLreyond lhe seemingly literaiist streak of her representations. She tends to use broadly disseminated and instantly recognizable photographs from the r: Thus, a panel frr: Satrapi's drawing, however, is not a slavish copy of the photograph.

It deviares from the original in a meaningful and -judiciousiy considered way. For example, the Shah's statue in the monument-toppling frame is not dressed in military uniform as jn lhe phoLograph, but in a robe, ermine collar, and a crown- royal attributes familiar to French readers Salrapi's primary irr- tended audience from the classical French tradition of children's book illustrations. Last bul not least among Satrapi's retouches of the photographic remplate is the clean-shaven, bespectacled man arguably an intellectuai , who instructs the invisible mob to "Pr.

Figure I. Marjaile Satrapi, "The trrore he lried democracy, the more his statues were torn down," Saurce'. Chapter 6: Pantheon, , Figure 2. On the grouncl of Teliran University' the Shah's statue is taketr down by demonstrators. Persepolis through the Lens of Persian Histrtriogrophy also multilayered, ironic, and subversive, delivering through the vivid imagination of an "inexperienced ten-year-oid" Satrapi's incisive and ironic commentary on the r-Lnfolding events, and on the assumptions and ideological preoccupations of all factors and factions on the Iranian political stage, including those with whom she closely identifies.

The amount of serious research that has gone irrto this "naively told story af a childhood" is best seen in Satrapi's ap- propriation of yet another iconic image of the revolution: Peter Chelkowskiand Hamid Dabashi.

Revolutionary posters", Staging a RevoJudon: Ern- bedded in each corpse is a blood-red automatic rifle, and the alter- nating phrases "Black Friday" in English and its Persian equivalent, 'Jum'ah Siyah. The blood of each demonstrator killed in Lhe slack fr: In Satrapi's rendition figure 4 , seven identical corpses in their shrouds inexorably push out the reluctant Shah, who is trying to dig in his heels.

The caption above reads "The end of the shah's reign was nearl'Thus, Satrapi pays tribute to an iconic revolu- ticrnary artifact, explicates its meaning, and-with the benefit of hlnd- sight-situates the event it refers to in the over: Before we close the chapter on Persepohs's historicity, something must be said about apuzz. There is no sign in the book of the militant clerics,sa who are widely seen as the true leaders of the revolution of r97s Bearded lay Islamists and their heavily veiled female counterparts, as well as male and female Guardians of the Revolution,s5 are in evidence Lhroughout the book.

But where is Ayatollah Khomeini, whose photos dominated the world news? There are only two panels in Chapter 9: The phrase "lmposed peace" neatly reverses "The Imposed War" slogan, which sums up for iranians the Iraqi invasion. The paraphrase explicates Ayatollah Khomeini's posilion that the sudden peace overture is the initiative of the same side that started the war-and the enerny should not be accommodaled, but pursued till final victory.

Bul was Klromeini's extended hand as rnuch of a revolutionary icon in Iran as his stern lurbaned visage was itr the West? That supposjtion is supported by a variety ofphotos and placards, produced in the islamic Republic, featuring Ayatollah Khomeini raising his hand in benedicLion over the heads of his supporters.

T'he sheer" number of these images confirms the importance of the raised-hand gesture in the iconography of the Ayatollah in lran. According to Peter Cheikowski and Hamid Dabashi, the revolution of tglg was a broad popular movement to which "three major ideological claims were laid: Persepolis is told from the viewpoint of the secular intellectuals and since the secularist viewpoint is that of Satrapi's tar: Aulhors iike Salrapi, r,vho have in- vested heavily in cultural translation, must take into accounl both their readers' thirst for authentic insight into the orher cultr-rre, of- fered by an informed insider and the limits of human empathy with "the others," inhabiting an alien environment.

A number of scholars have addressed the strategies Satrapi employs in her efforts to ne- gotiate the Easl-Wesl divide, and to defuse the image problem that lran and diasporic lranians were encountering in the West afler the revolution.

Two studies in parlicular have been helpful in defining the perim- eter of my own invesLigation: A Case Study of Mar: The question of culturaltranslation is also addressed in the second articie, which examines Persepohs from lhe perspeclive of diasporic cultural studies. This article tests this pr"emise on the micro level, analyzirTg the function of specific features of the narrative in simuitaneously addressing both indigenous and diasporic audiences.

The book is named after aworld-famous archaeological site. Undoubtedly, for Weslerners and lranians alike, this title is a re- minder that ancient Persia, the great multiethnic empire founded by the Achaemenids in the sixth century BCE, has a glorious past, implicitly juxtaposed lo Iran's problemalic present standing in Western public opinion. For Iranians from the pcst-World War Two generation, il would call to ruincl an encyclopedia pub- lished in the s by the Pahlavi Foundation under the auspices of the UNESC0 National Commission in lran, which comprises ar- ticles on Persian history and cullure through lhe ages.

Satrapi's concerns wilh reaching Western audiences,ee and her stated goai ofexorcising negative stereotypes about the people of her native country, firrd expression in many interviews with the author.

Amy Malek has alr"eady pointed out the pedagogical palhos of Satrapi's memoir, and her effective strategy of bridging the cultural divide by "fdepicting] surroundings that are simultaner: Persepolis through the Lens of Persion Historiography Iranian historical buildings. Even the burial-chamber of Cyrus the Great r. N Figure 5. Marjane Satrapi, "He even went ta lhe grave of Cyms the Great, who ruled over the ancient worldl' Source: Chapter 4: Pantheon, zoo3 , zB.

Figure 6.

Wikimedia Commons: Tomb, Cyrus the Great, iran, Library of Congress, https: C ross-c u ltu rs I i d e ntifi cati on This is achieved through the technique of "cartooning," or stripping down an image of its realistic details to Lurn it into an "icon," Lhus amplifying its "essential 'meaning.

Here is his ex- planation for how abstraction works: Lhe shoes of those who populate it, forgetting that they are tourisLs. Utilizing a visual language that reeds no interpretaLion and offers no distractions, the author makes allo-identification easier, ensuring maximum empathy fcrr her lranian characters.

Islamic ciolhing is one cf the most potent among them. Thus, the increase in veiled figures in Persepolis marks nr: Given the numerical imbalance between f"ull beards and black chadors on the one hand, and clean-shaven facesf covered heads cn Lhe otheq the viewer is ieft with the impression that in the world sketched tnPersepoli. In the panel, the spotlight is on a group of bearded "fundametrlalisLs," drawn in stark black and while, while all around them, in the shadows, sketchy silhouettes love, laugh, dance, and carry on a full, though clandestine, existence.

The "fundamentalists" occupy center sLage, but by another yardstick they are also completely surrounded by Lhose who r: The caption on the panel reads "The more lime passed, the more I became conscious of the contrast between the officialrepresentation of my country, and the real life of Lhe people, the one lhat wenl on behind the walls. She is also a cannily chosen avatar for the adult Satrapi, as the girl's irrepressible candor and seemingly innocuous queries punclure large holes in the prelences, affectations, and selfl delusions of the adulls around her.

Marji's "specific story" also func- tions like a parable of the human condition, using Iranian content Lo broach broader moral and ethical issues, and here are three of those: Should the sins of the fathers be visited uFron the sons? Swept on a wave o1'righleousness and revolutionary fervor like triumphant revolutionaries in general , young Marji in Chapter 6: Where do cads come from? In Chapter Faced by the possibility of arrest and detention fbr wear: Simidchieva , Persepolis through the Lens of Persion Historiogrophy r19 3.

Should an 6. Desperate lo fit ir, with her Austrian classmates, and ashamed of lran's image as "the epitome of evil," in Chapter Once again, her grandmother's admonish- ment "be true to yourself"tl6 helps her sland tall, and find her station in her new environment without denying her roots.

PersistenL anti-semitism, expressed in lhe denial of the Holocaust by some Islamist circles;and the shari'a penal code, which exacts severe punishment for hornosexual acLs, are two issues that have deeply tarnished lran's image jn Western eyes. Do ordinary Iranians share these attiludes? Should they be tarreci with the same brush?

Satrapi's answer comes not through protestations, but through two autobiographic episodes that show another side of Iranian reality.

The first one features Marji's reaction lo lhe tragic loss of herJewish friend Neda;the second is an encoun- ter beLween Marji's mother and her daughler's eight Austrian room- mates, who happen to be gay men.

True,Jews have been living in Persia since antiquity, and Cyrus the Great's berrevolenl trealment of the Babylonian exiles earned him an honorabie mention in lhe Holy Writ. Apart from conveying her personal history, her horror and grief at the loss of her friend Neda have an additional point to make. On the concluding panel of the episode, she is seen teaching one of the men how to say "i love you" in Persian to his lranian icve interest.

Conclusion lnPersepolis Satrapi adapts effectively some of the strategies of the Fersian historiographic tradition to a new alien genre and achieves her didactic objectives.

The book provides enough accurate references to the Iranian social and cultr-tralcontext to open a meaningful discr-rssion on the tectoiric shifts, which reshaped the region in the lale s and early s. It also uses "the liminal space" between culLures as a shared gr"ound from which non-Iranians can gain a native perspective on the Iran! One of Salrapi's most remarkable achievemenLs is that her comments on both societies are equaily honest, forthright, and unsentimental.

Their banner is inscribed with the motto of Marji's indomitabie grandma: N OTES 1. Marshall G. Hodgson,TheVenture of Islarn: Conscience andHistory in a warldcivilizafion,vol. The University of Chicago Press, j, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, Latlfi, Afschinel'r. Even After AllTlisTime: Harper Perennial, Mackenzie, D, N, "Eran, Erandahr. Columbia University. Malek, Amy. Mazur, Dan, and Alexauder Danner. A Globnl History, ta rhe Present.

Thames and Hudson Lld. McCloud, Scott. Understanding Carnics: The Invisible Arf. HarperCollins Pr"rblishers, 4. Meisami,Julie Scotl. PersianHistariograp'hy, edited by Charles Melville, T'auris, Edinburgh University Press, Melville, Charles.

L B, Tauris, Perslan Historiography, edited by Charles Melville, xxv-lv. Taurls, -. Moaveni, Azadeh. Lipstick Jihad: Public Affairs, Mottahedeh, Negar, "Cff the Grid: Reading lranian lvlemoirs in Our Tirne of Total War. A Memoir in Books.

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Iran was rich. Because of its wealth and its geographic location, it invited attacks: From Alexander the Great, from its Arab neighbors to the west, from Turkish and Mongolian conquerors, Iran was often subject to foreign domination. Yet the Persian language and culture withstood these invasions. The invaders assimilated into this strong culture, and in some ways they became Iranians themselves.

In the twentieth century, Iran entered a new phase. Reza Shah decid- ed to modernize and westernize the country, but meanwhile a fresh source of wealth was discovered: And with the oil came another inva- sion. The West, particularly Great Britain, wielded a strong influence on the Iranian economy. But Reza Shah, who sympathized with the Germans, declared Iran a neutral zone. So the Allies invaded and occupied Iran. Reza Shah was sent into exile and was succeeded by his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who was known simply as the Shah.

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Paula Amarilla. Hamid Maricar. Roman Rachkov. Ricky Slatcher Jr.Doctrinal objections to tlre direct role of clerics into the political structrres were expressed by Grand Ayatollahs Khu'i, Qumi, and Shari'at-Madari. Boatright, MiclraelD. The term "graphic novel" is used to designate "apotential'higher' form of comics,. There are only two panels in Chapter 9: Satrapi's Persepalis: Tagavi, Jiman, "The lran-Iraq War:

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